Life's too short to remember how to write Bash code. I feel liberated.— @laheadle on Clojurians Slack
Babashka is a native Clojure interpreter for scripting with fast startup. Its main goal is to leverage Clojure in places where you would be using bash otherwise.
As one user described it:
I’m quite at home in Bash most of the time, but there’s a substantial grey area of things that are too complicated to be simple in bash, but too simple to be worth writing a clj/s script for. Babashka really seems to hit the sweet spot for those cases.
For installation options check Installation. For quick installation use:
$ bash < <(curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/babashka/babashka/master/install)
or grab a binary from Github releases yourself and place it anywhere on the path.
Then you're ready to go:
$ ls | bb -i '(filter fs/directory? *input*)' ("doc" "resources" "sci" "script" "src" "target" "test") bb took 4ms.
See companies for a list of companies using babashka.
Are you using babashka in your company or personal projects? Let us know here.
Babashka uses SCI for interpreting Clojure. SCI implements a substantial subset of Clojure. Interpreting code is in general not as performant as executing compiled code. If your script takes more than a few seconds to run or has lots of loops, Clojure on the JVM may be a better fit as the performance on JVM is going to outweigh its startup time penalty. Read more about the differences with Clojure here.
java.lang can be considered stable
and is unlikely to change. Changes may happen in other parts of babashka,
although we will try our best to prevent them. Always check the release notes or
CHANGELOG.md before upgrading.
To get an overview of babashka, you can watch this talk (slides):
The babashka book contains detailed information about how to get the most out of babashka scripting.
If you're a fan of Clojure for the Brave and True, you might enjoy Babashka Babooka, a book by the same author, Daniel Higginbotham!
Read the output from a shell command as a lazy seq of strings:
$ ls | bb -i '(take 2 *input*)' ("CHANGES.md" "Dockerfile")
Read EDN from stdin and write the result to stdout:
$ bb '(vec (dedupe *input*))' <<< '[1 1 1 1 2]' [1 2]
Read more about
*input* and in- and output flags
Execute a script. E.g. print the current time in California using the
#!/usr/bin/env bb (def now (java.time.ZonedDateTime/now)) (def LA-timezone (java.time.ZoneId/of "America/Los_Angeles")) (def LA-time (.withZoneSameInstant now LA-timezone)) (def pattern (java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter/ofPattern "HH:mm")) (println (.format LA-time pattern))
$ pst.clj 05:17
More examples can be found here.
You can try babashka online with Nextjournal's babashka notebook environment.
Linux and macOS binaries are provided via brew.
brew install borkdude/brew/babashka
brew upgrade babashka
Linux and macOS (including ARM Macs) binaries are provided via nix (see the installation instructions for nix here).
# Adding `nixpkgs-unstable` channel for more up-to-date binaries, skip this if you already have `nixpkgs-unstable` in your channel list nix-channel --add https://nixos.org/channels/nixpkgs-unstable nixpkgs-unstable nix-channel --update nix-env -iA nixpkgs-unstable.babashka
nix-channel --update nix-env -iA nixpkgs-unstable.babashka
You can find more documentation on how to use babashka with nix here.
On Alpine it's recommended to download the binary manually from Github Releases and use the static linux binary.
babashka is available in the Arch User Repository. It can be installed using your favorite AUR helper such as
yay, yaourt, apacman and pacaur. Here is an example using
yay -S babashka-bin
asdf is an extendable version manager for linux and macOS.
Babashka can be installed using a plugin as follows:
asdf plugin add babashka https://github.com/pitch-io/asdf-babashka asdf install babashka latest
On Windows you can install using scoop and the scoop-clojure bucket.
Or just follow these concrete steps:
# Note: if you get an error you might need to change the execution policy (i.e. enable Powershell) with # Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned -scope CurrentUser Invoke-Expression (New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://get.scoop.sh') scoop bucket add scoop-clojure https://github.com/littleli/scoop-clojure scoop bucket add extras scoop install babashka
If scoop does not work for you, then you can also just download the
binary from Github releases and
place it on your path manually.
Note: WSL1 users might experience a BSOD, please use the --static install option when installing
$ curl -sLO https://raw.githubusercontent.com/babashka/babashka/master/install $ chmod +x install $ ./install --static
Install via the installer script for linux and macOS:
$ curl -sLO https://raw.githubusercontent.com/babashka/babashka/master/install $ chmod +x install $ ./install
By default this will install into
/usr/local/bin (you may need
this). To change this, provide the directory name:
$ ./install --dir .
To install a specific version, the script also supports
$ ./install --dir . --version 0.4.1
To force the download of the zip archive to a different directory than
$ ./install --dir . --version 0.4.1 --download-dir .
On Linux, if you want to install the static binary version:
$ ./install --dir . --version 0.4.1 --download-dir . --static
In case you want to check the download, you can use the
This maybe useful for unattended installations:
$ sha256sum babashka-0.4.1-linux-amd64-static.tar.gz ab70fb39fdbb5206c0a2faab178ffb54dd9597991a4bc13c65df2564e8f174f6 babashka-0.4.1-linux-amd64-static.tar.g $ ./install --dir /tmp --checksum ab70fb39fdbb5206c0a2faab178ffb54dd9597991a4bc13c65df2564e8f174f6 --static --version 0.4.1
Note that the
--checksum option only works when
--version option is also
provided. This is to avoid breakage when a new version of Babashka is released.
You may also download a binary from Github. For linux there is a static binary available which can be used on Alpine.
Check out the image on Docker hub.
Check out the news page to keep track of babashka-related news items.
Go here to see the full list of built-in namespaces.
A list of projects (scripts, libraries, pods and tools) known to work with babashka.
The babashka compatible badge indicates that a library can be used as babashka dependency.
If this is the case for your library, we encourage you to proudly display this badge.
<a href="https://babashka.org" rel="nofollow"><img src="https://github.com/babashka/babashka/raw/master/logo/badge.svg" alt="bb compatible" style="max-width: 100%;"></a>
The babashka built-in badge means that a library has been built directly into babashka and requires no extra dependencies to use it.
If this rare honor belongs to your library, you should display this badge.
<a href="https://babashka.org" rel="nofollow"><img src="https://github.com/babashka/babashka/raw/master/logo/built-in-badge.svg" alt="bb built-in" style="max-width: 100%;"></a>
Pods are programs that can be used as a Clojure library by babashka. Documentation is available in the pod library repo.
A list of available pods can be found in the pod registry.
Babashka is implemented using the Small Clojure
Interpreter. This means that a snippet or
script is not compiled to JVM bytecode, but executed form by form by a runtime
which implements a substantial subset of Clojure. Babashka is compiled to
a native binary using GraalVM. It comes with
a selection of built-in namespaces and functions from Clojure and other useful
libraries. The data types (numbers, strings, persistent collections) are the
same. Multi-threading is supported (
Differences with Clojure:
A pre-selected set of Java classes are supported. You cannot add Java classes at runtime.
Interpretation comes with overhead. Therefore loops are slower than in Clojure on the JVM. In general interpretation yields slower programs than compiled programs.
definterface and unboxed math.
defrecord are implemented using multimethods and regular
maps. Ostensibly they work the same, but under the hood there are no Java
classes that correspond to them.
reify works only for one class at a time
clojure.core.async/go macro is not (yet) supported. For compatibility it
currently maps to
clojure.core.async/thread. More info
AWS Lambda runtime doesn't support signals, therefore babashka has to disable
handling of SIGINT and SIGPIPE. This can be done by setting
Before new libraries or classes go into the standardly distributed babashka binary, these evaluation criteria are considered:
If not all of the criteria are met, but adding a feature is still useful to a
particular company or niche, adding it behind a feature flag is still a
possibility. This is currently the case for
next.jdbc and the
HSQLDB database drivers. Companies interested in these features can compile an
instance of babashka for their internal use. Companies are also free to make
forks of babashka and include their own internal libraries. If their customized
babashka is interesting to share with the world, they are free to distribute it
using a different binary name (like
etc.). See the feature flag documentation and the
implementation of the existing feature flags (example
Thanks to all the people that contributed to babashka:
This project exists thanks to all the people who contribute. [Contribute].
Become a financial contributor and help us sustain our community. [Contribute]
Support this project with your organization. Your logo will show up here with a link to your website. [Contribute]
Copyright © 2019-2020 Michiel Borkent
Distributed under the EPL License. See LICENSE.
This project contains code from:
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