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Immutable, arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers. A BigDecimal consists of an arbitrary precision integer unscaled value and a 32-bit integer scale. If zero or positive, the scale is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. If negative, the unscaled value of the number is multiplied by ten to the power of the negation of the scale. The value of the number represented by the BigDecimal is therefore (unscaledValue × 10-scale).

The BigDecimal class provides operations for arithmetic, scale manipulation, rounding, comparison, hashing, and format conversion. The toString() method provides a canonical representation of a BigDecimal.

The BigDecimal class gives its user complete control over rounding behavior. If no rounding mode is specified and the exact result cannot be represented, an exception is thrown; otherwise, calculations can be carried out to a chosen precision and rounding mode by supplying an appropriate MathContext object to the operation. In either case, eight rounding modes are provided for the control of rounding. Using the integer fields in this class (such as ROUND_HALF_UP) to represent rounding mode is largely obsolete; the enumeration values of the RoundingMode enum, (such as RoundingMode.HALF_UP) should be used instead.

When a MathContext object is supplied with a precision setting of 0 (for example, MathContext.UNLIMITED), arithmetic operations are exact, as are the arithmetic methods which take no MathContext object. (This is the only behavior that was supported in releases prior to 5.) As a corollary of computing the exact result, the rounding mode setting of a MathContext object with a precision setting of 0 is not used and thus irrelevant. In the case of divide, the exact quotient could have an infinitely long decimal expansion; for example, 1 divided by 3. If the quotient has a nonterminating decimal expansion and the operation is specified to return an exact result, an ArithmeticException is thrown. Otherwise, the exact result of the division is returned, as done for other operations.

When the precision setting is not 0, the rules of BigDecimal arithmetic are broadly compatible with selected modes of operation of the arithmetic defined in ANSI X3.274-1996 and ANSI X3.274-1996/AM 1-2000 (section 7.4). Unlike those standards, BigDecimal includes many rounding modes, which were mandatory for division in BigDecimal releases prior to 5. Any conflicts between these ANSI standards and the BigDecimal specification are resolved in favor of BigDecimal.

Since the same numerical value can have different representations (with different scales), the rules of arithmetic and rounding must specify both the numerical result and the scale used in the result's representation.

In general the rounding modes and precision setting determine how operations return results with a limited number of digits when the exact result has more digits (perhaps infinitely many in the case of division) than the number of digits returned.

First, the total number of digits to return is specified by the MathContext's precision setting; this determines the result's precision. The digit count starts from the leftmost nonzero digit of the exact result. The rounding mode determines how any discarded trailing digits affect the returned result.

For all arithmetic operators , the operation is carried out as though an exact intermediate result were first calculated and then rounded to the number of digits specified by the precision setting (if necessary), using the selected rounding mode. If the exact result is not returned, some digit positions of the exact result are discarded. When rounding increases the magnitude of the returned result, it is possible for a new digit position to be created by a carry propagating to a leading "9" digit. For example, rounding the value 999.9 to three digits rounding up would be numerically equal to one thousand, represented as 100×101. In such cases, the new "1" is the leading digit position of the returned result.

Besides a logical exact result, each arithmetic operation has a preferred scale for representing a result. The preferred scale for each operation is listed in the table below.

Preferred Scales for Results of Arithmetic Operations

OperationPreferred Scale of Result Addmax(addend.scale(), augend.scale()) Subtractmax(minuend.scale(), subtrahend.scale()) Multiplymultiplier.scale() multiplicand.scale() Dividedividend.scale() - divisor.scale()

These scales are the ones used by the methods which return exact arithmetic results; except that an exact divide may have to use a larger scale since the exact result may have more digits. For example, 1/32 is 0.03125.

Before rounding, the scale of the logical exact intermediate result is the preferred scale for that operation. If the exact numerical result cannot be represented in precision digits, rounding selects the set of digits to return and the scale of the result is reduced from the scale of the intermediate result to the least scale which can represent the precision digits actually returned. If the exact result can be represented with at most precision digits, the representation of the result with the scale closest to the preferred scale is returned. In particular, an exactly representable quotient may be represented in fewer than precision digits by removing trailing zeros and decreasing the scale. For example, rounding to three digits using the floor rounding mode,

19/100 = 0.19 // integer=19, scale=2

but

21/110 = 0.190 // integer=190, scale=3

Note that for add, subtract, and multiply, the reduction in scale will equal the number of digit positions of the exact result which are discarded. If the rounding causes a carry propagation to create a new high-order digit position, an additional digit of the result is discarded than when no new digit position is created.

Other methods may have slightly different rounding semantics. For example, the result of the pow method using the specified algorithm can occasionally differ from the rounded mathematical result by more than one unit in the last place, one ulp.

Two types of operations are provided for manipulating the scale of a BigDecimal: scaling/rounding operations and decimal point motion operations. Scaling/rounding operations (setScale and round) return a BigDecimal whose value is approximately (or exactly) equal to that of the operand, but whose scale or precision is the specified value; that is, they increase or decrease the precision of the stored number with minimal effect on its value. Decimal point motion operations (movePointLeft and movePointRight) return a BigDecimal created from the operand by moving the decimal point a specified distance in the specified direction.

For the sake of brevity and clarity, pseudo-code is used throughout the descriptions of BigDecimal methods. The pseudo-code expression (i j) is shorthand for "a BigDecimal whose value is that of the BigDecimal i added to that of the BigDecimal j." The pseudo-code expression (i == j) is shorthand for "true if and only if the BigDecimal i represents the same value as the BigDecimal j." Other pseudo-code expressions are interpreted similarly. Square brackets are used to represent the particular BigInteger and scale pair defining a BigDecimal value; for example [19, 2] is the BigDecimal numerically equal to 0.19 having a scale of 2.

Note: care should be exercised if BigDecimal objects are used as keys in a SortedMap or elements in a SortedSet since BigDecimal's natural ordering is inconsistent with equals. See Comparable, SortedMap or SortedSet for more information.

All methods and constructors for this class throw NullPointerException when passed a null object reference for any input parameter.

Immutable, arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers. A BigDecimal consists of an arbitrary precision integer unscaled value and a 32-bit integer scale. If zero or positive, the scale is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. If negative, the unscaled value of the number is multiplied by ten to the power of the negation of the scale. The value of the number represented by the BigDecimal is therefore (unscaledValue × 10-scale). The BigDecimal class provides operations for arithmetic, scale manipulation, rounding, comparison, hashing, and format conversion. The toString() method provides a canonical representation of a BigDecimal. The BigDecimal class gives its user complete control over rounding behavior. If no rounding mode is specified and the exact result cannot be represented, an exception is thrown; otherwise, calculations can be carried out to a chosen precision and rounding mode by supplying an appropriate MathContext object to the operation. In either case, eight rounding modes are provided for the control of rounding. Using the integer fields in this class (such as ROUND_HALF_UP) to represent rounding mode is largely obsolete; the enumeration values of the RoundingMode enum, (such as RoundingMode.HALF_UP) should be used instead. When a MathContext object is supplied with a precision setting of 0 (for example, MathContext.UNLIMITED), arithmetic operations are exact, as are the arithmetic methods which take no MathContext object. (This is the only behavior that was supported in releases prior to 5.) As a corollary of computing the exact result, the rounding mode setting of a MathContext object with a precision setting of 0 is not used and thus irrelevant. In the case of divide, the exact quotient could have an infinitely long decimal expansion; for example, 1 divided by 3. If the quotient has a nonterminating decimal expansion and the operation is specified to return an exact result, an ArithmeticException is thrown. Otherwise, the exact result of the division is returned, as done for other operations. When the precision setting is not 0, the rules of BigDecimal arithmetic are broadly compatible with selected modes of operation of the arithmetic defined in ANSI X3.274-1996 and ANSI X3.274-1996/AM 1-2000 (section 7.4). Unlike those standards, BigDecimal includes many rounding modes, which were mandatory for division in BigDecimal releases prior to 5. Any conflicts between these ANSI standards and the BigDecimal specification are resolved in favor of BigDecimal. Since the same numerical value can have different representations (with different scales), the rules of arithmetic and rounding must specify both the numerical result and the scale used in the result's representation. In general the rounding modes and precision setting determine how operations return results with a limited number of digits when the exact result has more digits (perhaps infinitely many in the case of division) than the number of digits returned. First, the total number of digits to return is specified by the MathContext's precision setting; this determines the result's precision. The digit count starts from the leftmost nonzero digit of the exact result. The rounding mode determines how any discarded trailing digits affect the returned result. For all arithmetic operators , the operation is carried out as though an exact intermediate result were first calculated and then rounded to the number of digits specified by the precision setting (if necessary), using the selected rounding mode. If the exact result is not returned, some digit positions of the exact result are discarded. When rounding increases the magnitude of the returned result, it is possible for a new digit position to be created by a carry propagating to a leading "9" digit. For example, rounding the value 999.9 to three digits rounding up would be numerically equal to one thousand, represented as 100×101. In such cases, the new "1" is the leading digit position of the returned result. Besides a logical exact result, each arithmetic operation has a preferred scale for representing a result. The preferred scale for each operation is listed in the table below. Preferred Scales for Results of Arithmetic Operations OperationPreferred Scale of Result Addmax(addend.scale(), augend.scale()) Subtractmax(minuend.scale(), subtrahend.scale()) Multiplymultiplier.scale() multiplicand.scale() Dividedividend.scale() - divisor.scale() These scales are the ones used by the methods which return exact arithmetic results; except that an exact divide may have to use a larger scale since the exact result may have more digits. For example, 1/32 is 0.03125. Before rounding, the scale of the logical exact intermediate result is the preferred scale for that operation. If the exact numerical result cannot be represented in precision digits, rounding selects the set of digits to return and the scale of the result is reduced from the scale of the intermediate result to the least scale which can represent the precision digits actually returned. If the exact result can be represented with at most precision digits, the representation of the result with the scale closest to the preferred scale is returned. In particular, an exactly representable quotient may be represented in fewer than precision digits by removing trailing zeros and decreasing the scale. For example, rounding to three digits using the floor rounding mode, 19/100 = 0.19 // integer=19, scale=2 but 21/110 = 0.190 // integer=190, scale=3 Note that for add, subtract, and multiply, the reduction in scale will equal the number of digit positions of the exact result which are discarded. If the rounding causes a carry propagation to create a new high-order digit position, an additional digit of the result is discarded than when no new digit position is created. Other methods may have slightly different rounding semantics. For example, the result of the pow method using the specified algorithm can occasionally differ from the rounded mathematical result by more than one unit in the last place, one ulp. Two types of operations are provided for manipulating the scale of a BigDecimal: scaling/rounding operations and decimal point motion operations. Scaling/rounding operations (setScale and round) return a BigDecimal whose value is approximately (or exactly) equal to that of the operand, but whose scale or precision is the specified value; that is, they increase or decrease the precision of the stored number with minimal effect on its value. Decimal point motion operations (movePointLeft and movePointRight) return a BigDecimal created from the operand by moving the decimal point a specified distance in the specified direction. For the sake of brevity and clarity, pseudo-code is used throughout the descriptions of BigDecimal methods. The pseudo-code expression (i j) is shorthand for "a BigDecimal whose value is that of the BigDecimal i added to that of the BigDecimal j." The pseudo-code expression (i == j) is shorthand for "true if and only if the BigDecimal i represents the same value as the BigDecimal j." Other pseudo-code expressions are interpreted similarly. Square brackets are used to represent the particular BigInteger and scale pair defining a BigDecimal value; for example [19, 2] is the BigDecimal numerically equal to 0.19 having a scale of 2. Note: care should be exercised if BigDecimal objects are used as keys in a SortedMap or elements in a SortedSet since BigDecimal's natural ordering is inconsistent with equals. See Comparable, SortedMap or SortedSet for more information. All methods and constructors for this class throw NullPointerException when passed a null object reference for any input parameter.

- *-one
- *-round-ceiling
- *-round-down
- *-round-floor
- *-round-half-down
- *-round-half-even
- *-round-half-up
- *-round-unnecessary
- *-round-up
- *-ten
- *-zero
- *value-of
- ->big-decimal
- abs
- add
- byte-value-exact
- compare-to
- divide
- divide-and-remainder
- divide-to-integral-value
- double-value
- equals
- float-value
- hash-code
- int-value
- int-value-exact
- long-value
- long-value-exact
- max
- min
- move-point-left
- move-point-right
- multiply
- negate
- plus
- pow
- precision
- remainder
- round
- scale
- scale-by-power-of-ten
- set-scale
- short-value-exact
- signum
- strip-trailing-zeros
- subtract
- to-big-integer
- to-big-integer-exact
- to-engineering-string
- to-plain-string
- to-string
- ulp
- unscaled-value

Immutable arbitrary-precision integers. All operations behave as if BigIntegers were represented in two's-complement notation (like Java's primitive integer types). BigInteger provides analogues to all of Java's primitive integer operators, and all relevant methods from java.lang.Math. Additionally, BigInteger provides operations for modular arithmetic, GCD calculation, primality testing, prime generation, bit manipulation, and a few other miscellaneous operations.

Semantics of arithmetic operations exactly mimic those of Java's integer arithmetic operators, as defined in The Java Language Specification. For example, division by zero throws an ArithmeticException, and division of a negative by a positive yields a negative (or zero) remainder. All of the details in the Spec concerning overflow are ignored, as BigIntegers are made as large as necessary to accommodate the results of an operation.

Semantics of shift operations extend those of Java's shift operators to allow for negative shift distances. A right-shift with a negative shift distance results in a left shift, and vice-versa. The unsigned right shift operator (>>>) is omitted, as this operation makes little sense in combination with the "infinite word size" abstraction provided by this class.

Semantics of bitwise logical operations exactly mimic those of Java's bitwise integer operators. The binary operators (and, or, xor) implicitly perform sign extension on the shorter of the two operands prior to performing the operation.

Comparison operations perform signed integer comparisons, analogous to those performed by Java's relational and equality operators.

Modular arithmetic operations are provided to compute residues, perform exponentiation, and compute multiplicative inverses. These methods always return a non-negative result, between 0 and (modulus - 1), inclusive.

Bit operations operate on a single bit of the two's-complement representation of their operand. If necessary, the operand is sign- extended so that it contains the designated bit. None of the single-bit operations can produce a BigInteger with a different sign from the BigInteger being operated on, as they affect only a single bit, and the "infinite word size" abstraction provided by this class ensures that there are infinitely many "virtual sign bits" preceding each BigInteger.

For the sake of brevity and clarity, pseudo-code is used throughout the descriptions of BigInteger methods. The pseudo-code expression (i j) is shorthand for "a BigInteger whose value is that of the BigInteger i plus that of the BigInteger j." The pseudo-code expression (i == j) is shorthand for "true if and only if the BigInteger i represents the same value as the BigInteger j." Other pseudo-code expressions are interpreted similarly.

All methods and constructors in this class throw NullPointerException when passed a null object reference for any input parameter.

BigInteger must support values in the range -2Integer.MAX_VALUE (exclusive) to 2Integer.MAX_VALUE (exclusive) and may support values outside of that range.

The range of probable prime values is limited and may be less than the full supported positive range of BigInteger. The range must be at least 1 to 2500000000.

Immutable arbitrary-precision integers. All operations behave as if BigIntegers were represented in two's-complement notation (like Java's primitive integer types). BigInteger provides analogues to all of Java's primitive integer operators, and all relevant methods from java.lang.Math. Additionally, BigInteger provides operations for modular arithmetic, GCD calculation, primality testing, prime generation, bit manipulation, and a few other miscellaneous operations. Semantics of arithmetic operations exactly mimic those of Java's integer arithmetic operators, as defined in The Java Language Specification. For example, division by zero throws an ArithmeticException, and division of a negative by a positive yields a negative (or zero) remainder. All of the details in the Spec concerning overflow are ignored, as BigIntegers are made as large as necessary to accommodate the results of an operation. Semantics of shift operations extend those of Java's shift operators to allow for negative shift distances. A right-shift with a negative shift distance results in a left shift, and vice-versa. The unsigned right shift operator (>>>) is omitted, as this operation makes little sense in combination with the "infinite word size" abstraction provided by this class. Semantics of bitwise logical operations exactly mimic those of Java's bitwise integer operators. The binary operators (and, or, xor) implicitly perform sign extension on the shorter of the two operands prior to performing the operation. Comparison operations perform signed integer comparisons, analogous to those performed by Java's relational and equality operators. Modular arithmetic operations are provided to compute residues, perform exponentiation, and compute multiplicative inverses. These methods always return a non-negative result, between 0 and (modulus - 1), inclusive. Bit operations operate on a single bit of the two's-complement representation of their operand. If necessary, the operand is sign- extended so that it contains the designated bit. None of the single-bit operations can produce a BigInteger with a different sign from the BigInteger being operated on, as they affect only a single bit, and the "infinite word size" abstraction provided by this class ensures that there are infinitely many "virtual sign bits" preceding each BigInteger. For the sake of brevity and clarity, pseudo-code is used throughout the descriptions of BigInteger methods. The pseudo-code expression (i j) is shorthand for "a BigInteger whose value is that of the BigInteger i plus that of the BigInteger j." The pseudo-code expression (i == j) is shorthand for "true if and only if the BigInteger i represents the same value as the BigInteger j." Other pseudo-code expressions are interpreted similarly. All methods and constructors in this class throw NullPointerException when passed a null object reference for any input parameter. BigInteger must support values in the range -2Integer.MAX_VALUE (exclusive) to 2Integer.MAX_VALUE (exclusive) and may support values outside of that range. The range of probable prime values is limited and may be less than the full supported positive range of BigInteger. The range must be at least 1 to 2500000000.

- *-one
- *-ten
- *-zero
- *probable-prime
- *value-of
- ->big-integer
- abs
- add
- and
- and-not
- bit-count
- bit-length
- byte-value-exact
- clear-bit
- compare-to
- divide
- divide-and-remainder
- double-value
- equals
- flip-bit
- float-value
- gcd
- get-lowest-set-bit
- hash-code
- int-value
- int-value-exact
- long-value
- long-value-exact
- max
- min
- mod
- mod-inverse
- mod-pow
- multiply
- negate
- next-probable-prime
- not
- or
- pow
- probable-prime?
- remainder
- set-bit
- shift-left
- shift-right
- short-value-exact
- signum
- subtract
- test-bit
- to-byte-array
- to-string
- xor

No vars found in this namespace.

Immutable objects which encapsulate the context settings which describe certain rules for numerical operators, such as those implemented by the BigDecimal class.

The base-independent settings are:

precision: the number of digits to be used for an operation; results are rounded to this precision

roundingMode: a RoundingMode object which specifies the algorithm to be used for rounding.

Immutable objects which encapsulate the context settings which describe certain rules for numerical operators, such as those implemented by the BigDecimal class. The base-independent settings are: precision: the number of digits to be used for an operation; results are rounded to this precision roundingMode: a RoundingMode object which specifies the algorithm to be used for rounding.

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