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ring-middleware-accept is a Ring middleware component for performing server-driven content negotiation.

It allows Ring handlers to select the most appropriate content to output based on the value of these headers in the incoming request:

  • Accept
  • Accept-Language
  • Accept-Charset
  • Accept-Encoding

It implements RFC 2616 sections 14.1–4, including wildcard and prefix matching rules, client-side q-values, and server-side source quality (qs) values.

Build Status


ring-middleware-accept is available in Clojars. Add it as a dependency in your Leiningen project's project.clj:

[ring-middleware-accept "2.0.3"]

or to your Maven project's pom.xml:



ring-middleware-accept exposes a single public function, wrap-accept, in the namespace ring.middleware.accept. This function takes two arguments: the handler to be wrapped, and a map of the content types offered by the handler.

For example:

(wrap-accept my-handler
	{:mime ["text/html" "text/plain"], :language ["en" "fr" "de"]})

Valid keys in the map are :mime (corresponding to the Accept header), :language, :charset, and :encoding. In the simplest case, as in the example above, the map values are just vectors of strings.

The wrapper augments the request-map which is passed to the handler with an :accept entry. Its value is a map of results, i.e. which of the offered content types the client should be served.

For example:

{:mime "text/html", :language "en"}

If the client cannot accept any of the offered types, some of the map entries will be nil. This may warrant a 406 Not Acceptable HTTP response.

Simple example

(ns example.web
	(:require [ring.middleware.accept :refer [wrap-accept]])

(defroutes routes
	(GET "/greeting" {accept :accept}
		(case (:language accept)
			"en" "hello"
			"fr" "bonjour"
			"de" "hallo")))

(def app
	(-> routes
		(wrap-accept {:language ["en" "fr" "de"]})


Content types can be given aliases using the :as keyword.

{:language ["en-gb" :as :british, "en-us" :as :american]
 :mime     ["application/json" :as :json, "text/html" :as :html]}

These aliases will then used in the map of results:

{:language :british, :mime :html}

Source quality (qs) values

The :qs keyword can be used to assign quality values to the content types which the server is offering. These are the server-side equivalent of the q-values found in client requests.

This example shows a server expressing a preference for HTML over plain text in the ratio 2:1.

{:mime ["text/html" :qs 1, "text/plain" :qs 0.5]}

These values are used to determine which content type is chosen in the event of the client being able to accept more than one of those on offer. ring-middleware-accept follows the de facto standard of multiplying client q-values and server qs-values, and selecting the greatest product.

This means that in our example, a client which accepts text/plain,text/html will be served HTML, but a client which accepts text/plain;q=1,text/html;q=0.1 will be served plain text. This is because the text/plain product 1×0.5 is greater than the text/html product 0.1×1.


Copyright © 2014 rufoa

Distributed under the Eclipse Public License, the same as Clojure.

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