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Ring middleware that prevents CSRF attacks. By default this uses the synchronizer token pattern.


Add the following dependency to your project.clj:

[ring/ring-anti-forgery "1.3.0"]


The wrap-anti-forgery middleware function should be applied to your Ring handler.

Once applied, any request that isn't a HEAD or GET request will now require an anti-forgery token, or a 403 "access denied" response will be returned.

By default, the request is validated via the synchronizer token pattern, which requires the session middleware to be in place:

(require '[ring.middleware.anti-forgery :refer :all]
         '[ring.middleware.session :refer :all])

(def app
  (-> handler

The token will be used to validate the request is accessible via the *anti-forgery-token* var. The token is also placed in the request under the :anti-forgery-token key.

Custom token reader

By default the middleware looks for the anti-forgery token in the __anti-forgery-token form parameter, which can be added to your forms as a hidden field. For convenience, this library provides a function to generate the HTML of that hidden field:

(use 'ring.util.anti-forgery)

(anti-forgery-field)  ;; returns the HTML for the anti-forgery field

The middleware also looks for the token in the X-CSRF-Token and X-XSRF-Token header fields, which are commonly used in AJAX requests.

This behavior can be customized further by supplying a function to the :read-token option. This function is passed the request map, and should return the anti-forgery token found in the request.

(defn get-custom-token [request]
  (get-in request [:headers "x-forgery-token"]))

(def app
  (-> handler
      (wrap-anti-forgery {:read-token get-custom-token})

Custom error handling

It's also possible to customize the error response returned when the token is invalid or missing:

(def custom-error-response
  {:status 403
   :headers {"Content-Type" "text/html"}
   :body "<h1>Missing anti-forgery token</h1>"})

(def app
  (-> handler
      (wrap-anti-forgery {:error-response custom-error-response})

Or, for more control, an error handler can be supplied:

(defn custom-error-handler [request]
  {:status 403
   :headers {"Content-Type" "text/html"}
   :body "<h1>Missing anti-forgery token</h1>"})

(def app
  (-> handler
      (wrap-anti-forgery {:error-handler custom-error-handler})

Custom token strategy

The synchronizer pattern is not the only way of preventing CSRF attacks. There a number of different strategies, and the middleware in this library can support them through the :strategy option:

(def app
  (wrap-anti-forgery handler {:strategy custom-strategy}))

The custom strategy must satisfy the Strategy protocol. Some third-party strategies already exist:

Further Documentation


This middleware will prevent all HTTP methods except for GET and HEAD from accessing your handler without a valid anti-forgery token.

You should therefore only apply this middleware to the parts of your application designed to be accessed through a web browser. This middleware should not be applied to handlers that define web services.


Copyright © 2018 James Reeves

Distributed under the MIT License, the same as Ring.

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