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Methodical is a library that provides drop-in replacements for Clojure multimethods and adds several advanced features.

(require '[methodical.core :as m])

(m/defmulti my-multimethod

(m/defmethod my-multimethod Object
  (assoc m :object? true))

(my-multimethod {:type Object})
;; -> {:type java.lang.Object, :object? true}

Calling the next-most-specific method with next-method

Inspired by the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS), Methodical methods can call the next-most-specific method, if they should so desire, by calling next-method:

(m/defmethod my-multimethod String
  (next-method (assoc m :string? true)))

(my-multimethod {:type String})
;; -> {:type java.lang.String, :string? true, :object? true}

This makes it easy to reuse shared parent implementations of methods without having to know the exact dispatch value of the next method. In vanilla Clojure multimethods, you'd have to do something like this:

((get-method my-multimethod Object) (assoc m :string? true))

If you're not sure whether a next-method exists, you can check whether it's nil before calling it.

Auxiliary Methods: :before, :after, and :around

Inspired by the CLOS, Methodical multimethods support both primary methods and auxiliary methods. Primary methods are the main methods that are invoked for a given dispatch value, such as the implementations for String or Object in the examples above; they are the same type of method vanilla defmethod supports. Auxiliary methods are additional methods that are invoked :before, :after, or :around the primary methods:

(m/defmethod my-multimethod :before String
  (assoc m :before? true))

(m/defmethod my-multimethod :around String
  (next-method (assoc m :around? true)))

(my-multimethod {:type String})
;; -> {:type java.lang.String, :around? true, :before? true, :string? true, :object? true}

:before methods

All applicable :before methods are invoked before the primary method, in order from most-specific (String before Object) to least-specific. Unlike the CLOS, which ignores the results of :before and :after auxiliary methods, by default Methodical threads the result of each :before method into the next method as its last argument. This better supports Clojure's functional programming style.

(m/defmulti before-example
  (fn [x acc]
    (:type x)))

(m/defmethod before-example :before String
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :string))

(m/defmethod before-example :before Object
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :object))

(m/defmethod before-example :default
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :default))

(before-example {:type String} [])
;; -> [:string :object :default]

:before methods unlock a whole new range of solutions that would be tedious with vanilla Clojure multimethods: suppose you wanted add logging to all invocations of a multimethod. With vanilla multimethods, you'd have to add an individual log statment to every method! With Methodical, just add a new :default :before method:

(m/defmethod my-multimethod :before :default
  [& args]
  (log/debugf "my-multimethod called with args: %s" args)
  ;; return last arg so it is threaded thru for next method
  (last args))

:after methods

All applicable :after methods are invoked after the primary method, in order from least-specific (Object before String) to most-specific. Like :before methods, (by default) the result of the previous method is threaded thru as the last argument of the next function:

(m/defmulti after-example
  (fn [x acc]
    (:type x)))

(m/defmethod after-example :after String
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :string))

(m/defmethod after-example :after Object
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :object))

(m/defmethod after-example :default
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :default))

(after-example {:type String} [])
;; -> [:default :object :string]

:around methods

:around methods are called around all other methods and give you the power to choose how or when to invoke those methods, and modify any arguments passed to them, or their result, as needed. Like primary methods (but unlike :before and :after methods), :around methods have an implicit next-method argument; you'll need to call this to invoke the next method. :around methods are invoked from least-specific to most-specific (Object before String):

(m/defmulti around-example
  (fn [x acc]
    (:type x)))

(m/defmethod around-example :around String
  [x acc]
  (as-> acc acc
    (conj acc :string-before)
    (next-method x acc)
    (conj acc :string-after)))

(m/defmethod around-example :around Object
  [x acc]
  (as-> acc acc
    (conj acc :object-before)
    (next-method x acc)
    (conj acc :object-after)))

(m/defmethod around-example :default
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :default))

(around-example {:type String} [])
;; -> [:object-before :string-before :default :string-after :object-after]

Around methods give you amazing power: you can decider whether to skip invoking next-method altogether, or even invoke it more than once; you can acquire resources for the duration of the method invocation with with-open or the like.

Method combinations are discussed more in detail below.

Defining multiple auxiliary methods for the same dispatch value

Unlike primary methods, you can have multiple auxiliary methods for the same dispatch value. However, adding an additional duplicate auxiliary method every time you reload a namespace would be annoying, so the defmethod macro automatically replaces existing auxiliary methods for the same multimethod and dispatch value in the same namespace:

(m/defmulti after-example
  (fn [x acc]
    (:type x)))

(m/defmethod after-example :after String
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :string))

;; replaces the aux method above
(m/defmethod after-example :after String
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :string-2))

(m/defmethod after-example :default
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :default))

(after-example {:type String} [])
;; -> [:default :string-2]

In most cases, this is what you want, and the least-annoying behavior. If you actually do want to define multiple aux methods of the same type for the same multimethod and dispatch value, you can give each method a unique key:

(m/defmulti after-example
  (fn [x acc]
    (:type x)))

(m/defmethod after-example :after String "first String :after method"
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :string))

(m/defmethod after-example :after String "another String :after method"
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :string-2))

(m/defmethod after-example :default
  [x acc]
  (conj acc :default))

(after-example {:type String} [])

;; -> [:default :string-2 :string]

You can also use this key to remove specific auxiliary methods.

Getting the "effective method"

The effective method is the method that is ultimately invoked when you invoke a multimethod for a given dispatch value. With vanilla Clojure multimethods, get-method returns this "effective method" (which is nothing more than a single function); in Methodical, you can use effective-method to build an effective method that combines all auxiliary methods and primary methods into a single composed function. By default, this effective method is cached.

Constructing and composing multimethods programmatically

Perhaps one of the biggest limitations of vanilla multimethods is that they can't be passed around and modified on-the-fly like normal functions or other Clojure datatypes -- they're defined statically by defmulti, and methods can only be added destructively, by altering the original object. Methodical multimethods are implemented entirely as immutable Clojure objects (with the exception of caching).

(let [dispatch-fn :type
      multifn     (-> (m/default-multifn dispatch-fn)
                      (m/add-primary-method Object (fn [next-method m]
      multifn'    (m/add-primary-method multifn String (fn [next-method m]
  ((juxt multifn multifn') {:type String}))

;; -> [:object :string]

Note that when using these programmatic functions, primary and :around methods are each passed an implicit next-method arg as their first arg. The defmethod macro binds this automatically, but you'll need to handle it yourself when using these functions.

Every operation available for Clojure multimethods, and quite a few more, are available with programmatic functions like add-primary-method.

Advanced Customization

Clojure's multimethods, while quite powerful, are somewhat limited in the ways you can customize their behavior. Here's a quick list of some of the things you can do with Methodical multimethods, all of which are simply impossible with vanilla Clojure mulitmethods:

  • Dispatch with multiple hierarchies (e.g., one for each arg)

  • Change the strategy used to cache effective methods (the compiled function that is ultimately invoked for a set of args)

  • Invoke all applicable primary methods, and return a sequence of their results

  • Dynamically compute new primary or auxiliary methods without users manually adding them

  • Support default values for part of a dispatch value, e.g. when dispatching off a pair of classes, e.g. support [String String], [:default String], or [String :default]

  • Combine multiple multimethods into a single multimethod; that, when invoked, tries invoking each constituent multimethod in turn until it finds one with a matching method implementation

To enable such advanced functionality, Methodical multimethods are divided into four components, and two that manage them:

  • The method combination, which defines the way applicable primary and auxiliary methods are combined into a single effective method. The default method combination, thread-last-method-combination, binds implicit next-method args for primary and :around methods, and implements logic to thread the result of each method into the last argument of the next. Method combinations also specify which auxiliary method qualifiers (e.g. :before or :around) are allowed, and how defmethod macro forms using those qualifiers are expanded (e.g., whether they get an implicit next-method arg). Method combinations implement the MethodCombination interface.

  • The method table stores primary and auxiliary methods, and returns them when asked. The default implementation, standard-method-table, uses simple Clojure immutable maps, but there is nothing stopping you from creating an implementation that ignores requests to store new methods, or dynamically generates and returns a set of methods based on outside factors. Method tables implement the MethodTable interface.

  • The dispatcher decides which dispatch value should be used for a given set of arguments, which primary and auxiliary methods from the method table are applicable for that dispatch value, and the order those methods should be applied in -- which methods are most specific, and which are the least specific (e.g., String is more-specific than Object.) The default implementation, standard-dispatcher, mimics the behavior of Clojure multimethods, using a dispatch function to determine dispatch values, and a single hierarchy and prefers map to determine which methods are applicable. You could easily create your own implementation that uses multiple hierarchies, or one that uses no hierarchies at all. Dispatchers implement the Dispatcher interface.

  • A cache, if present, implements a caching strategy for effective methods, so that they need not be recomputed on every invocation. Caches implement the Cache interface. Depending on whether you create a multimethod via defmulti or with the programmatic functions, the cache is either a watching-cache, which watches the hierarchy referenced by the dispatcher (by default, #'clojure.core/global-hierarchy), clearing the cache when it changes; or simple-cache, a bare-bones cache. You could easily implement alternative caching strategies, such as TTL or LRU caches, or ones that better optimize memory and locality.

The method combination, method table, and dispatcher are managed by an object called the multifn impl, which implements MultiFnImpl. If this impl supports caching, it manages a cache as well, albeit indirectly (thru its implementation of the method effective-method.) The default implementation is actually a combination of two multifn impls: cached-multifn-impl manages a cache and wraps standard-multifn-impl, which itself retains the other three components.

Finally, the multifn impl is wrapped in StandardMultiFn, which implements a variety of interfaces, such as clojure.lang.IObj, clojure.lang.Named, clojure.lang.IFn, as well as MethodCombination, MethodTable, Dispatcher, and MultiFnImpl.

You can use alternative components directly in the defmulti macro by passing :combo, :method-table, dispatcher, or :cache:

(m/defmulti custom-multifn
  :combo (m/thread-first-method-combination))

When constructing multimethods programmatically, you can use standard-multifn-impl and multifn to create a multimethod with the desired combination of components:

  (m/standard-dispatcher some-dispatch-fn)

Component implementations that ship with Methodical

As previously mentioned, Methodical ships with a variety of alternative implementations of these constituent components of multimethods. The following summarizes all component implementations that currently ship with Methodical:

Method Combinations

  • clojure-method-combination - mimics behavior of vanilla Clojure multimethods. Disallows auxiliary methods; primary methods do not get an implicit next-method arg.

  • clos-method-combination - mimics behavior of the CLOS standard method combination. Supports :before, :after, and :around auxiliary methods. Return values of :before and :after methods are ignored. :after methods are only called with the result of the primary method. Primary and :around methods are given an implicit next-method argument.

  • thread-last-method-combination: the default method combination. Similar to clos-method-combination, but the result of :before methods, the primary method, and :after methods are threaded thru to the next method as the last argument. :after methods are passed the full set of arguments the multimethod as a whole was invoked with.

  • thread-first-method-combination: Like thread-last-method-combination, but results of each method are threaded into the next method as its first arg.

  • Operator method combinations. The following method combinations are inspired by CLOS operator method combinations; each combination behaves similarly, in that it invokes all applicable primary methods, from most-specific to least-specific (String before Object), combining results with the operator for which they are named. Generally, the result is of this form:

    (operator (primary-method-1 args)
              (primary-method-2 args)
              (primary-method-3 args)))

    Operator method combinations support :around methods, but not :before or :after; primary methods do not support next-method, but :around methods do.

    The following operator method combinations ship with Methodical:

    • do-method-combination -- executes all primary methods sequentially, as if by do, returning the result of the least-specific method. The classic use case for this combination is to implement the equivalent of hooks in Emacs Lisp -- you could, for example, define a system shutdown multimethod, and various implementations can be added as needed to to define additional shutdown actions:

      ;; This example uses the `everything-dispatcher`, see below
      ;; defmulti always expects a dispatch fn, but since it's not used by the everything dispatcher we can pass
      ;; anything
      (m/defmulti ^:private shutdown!
        :dispatcher (m/everything-dispatcher)
        :combo (m/do-method-combination))
      (m/defmethod shutdown! :task-scheduler
        (println "Shutting down task scheduler..."))
      (m/defmethod shutdown! :web-server
        (println "Shutting down web server..."))
      (m/prefer-method! #'shutdown! :web-server :task-scheduler)
      (m/defmethod shutdown! :around :initiate
        (println "Initiating shutdown...")
      ;; -> Initiating shutdown...
      ;; -> Shutting down web server...
      ;; -> Shutting down task scheduler...
    • min-method-combination -- returns the minimum value returned by all primary methods.

    • max-method-combination -- returns the maximum value returned by all primary methods.

    • +-method-combination -- returns the sum of all values returned by all primary methods. The classic example use case is calculating total electricity usage from a variety of sources.

    • seq-method-combination -- returns a lazy sequence of all values returned by all primary methods.

    • concat-method-combination -- returns a lazy concatenated sequence of all values returned by all primary methods.

      seq-method-combination : map :: concat-method-combination : mapcat
    • and-method-combination -- invokes all primary methods until one returns a non-truthy value, at which point it short-circuts.

    • or-method-combination -- invokes all primary methods until one returns a truthy value, at which points it short-circuts and returns that value. You could use this method combination to implement a chain-of-responsibility pattern.


  • standard-dispatcher -- The default. Dispatcher that mimics behavior of vanilla Clojure multimethods. Uses a single hierarchy, dispatch function, default dispatch value, and map of preferences defined by prefer-method.

  • everything-dispatcher -- Dispatcher that always considers all primary and auxiliary methods to be matches. Does not calculate dispatch values, but can sort methods from most- to least-specific using a hierarchy and map of preferences. Particularly useful with the operator method combinations.

Method Tables

  • standard-method-table -- The default. A simple method table based on Clojure immutable maps.

  • clojure-method-table -- Like standard-method-table, but disallows auxiliary methods.


  • simple-cache -- Default for multimethods constructed programmatically. Simple cache that maintains a map of dispatch value -> effective method.

  • watching-cache -- Default for multimethods constructed via defmulti. Wraps another cache (by default, simple-cache) and watches one or more Vars (by default, #'clojure.core/global-hierarchy), clearing the cache when the watched Vars change. Clears watches when cache is garbage-collected.

Multifn Impls

  • standard-multifn-impl -- Basic impl that manages a method combination, dispatcher, and method table.

  • cached-multifn-impl -- wraps another multifn impl and an instance of Cache to implement caching.


Methodical offers debugging facilities so you can see what's going on under the hood, such as the trace utility:



Methodical is built with performance in mind. Although it is written entirely in Clojure, and supports many more features, its performance is similar or better to vanilla Clojure multimethods in many cases. Profiling results with Criterium show Methodical performing up to 20% faster in some cases:

;;; Vanilla clojure
Evaluation count : 1133167380 in 60 samples of 18886123 calls.
             Execution time mean : 43.643309 ns
    Execution time std-deviation : 0.733846 ns
   Execution time lower quantile : 42.421811 ns ( 2.5%)
   Execution time upper quantile : 44.646005 ns (97.5%)
                   Overhead used : 8.836747 ns

;;; Methodical
Evaluation count : 1359687900 in 60 samples of 22661465 calls.
             Execution time mean : 35.327155 ns
    Execution time std-deviation : 0.067655 ns
   Execution time lower quantile : 35.219823 ns ( 2.5%)
   Execution time upper quantile : 35.449303 ns (97.5%)
                   Overhead used : 8.836747 ns

There is still room for even more performance improvement!


Code, documentation, and artwork copyright © 2019-2021 Cam Saul.

Distributed under the Eclipse Public License, same as Clojure.

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