Liking cljdoc? Tell your friends :D

Coercion Explained

Coercion is a process of transforming parameters (and responses) from one format into another. Reitit separates routing and coercion into two separate steps.

By default, all wildcard and catch-all parameters are parsed into strings:

(require '[reitit.core :as r])

(def router
  (r/router
    ["/:company/users/:user-id" ::user-view]))

Match with the parsed :path-params as strings:

(r/match-by-path r "/metosin/users/123")
; #Match{:template "/:company/users/:user-id",
;        :data {:name :user/user-view},
;        :result nil,
;        :path-params {:company "metosin", :user-id "123"},
;        :path "/metosin/users/123"}

To enable parameter coercion, the following things need to be done:

  1. Define a Coercion for the routes
  2. Define types for the parameters
  3. Compile coercers for the types
  4. Apply the coercion

Define Coercion

reitit.coercion/Coercion is a protocol defining how types are defined, coerced and inventoried.

Reitit ships with the following coercion modules:

Coercion can be attached to route data under :coercion key. There can be multiple Coercion implementations within a single router, normal scoping rules apply.

Defining parameters

Route parameters can be defined via route data :parameters. It has keys for different type of parameters: :query, :body, :form, :header and :path. Syntax for the actual parameters depends on the Coercion implementation.

Example with Schema path-parameters:

(require '[reitit.coercion.schema])
(require '[schema.core :as s])

(def router
  (r/router
    ["/:company/users/:user-id" {:name ::user-view
                                 :coercion reitit.coercion.schema/coercion
                                 :parameters {:path {:company s/Str
                                                     :user-id s/Int}}}]))

A Match:

(r/match-by-path r "/metosin/users/123")
; #Match{:template "/:company/users/:user-id",
;        :data {:name :user/user-view,
;               :coercion <<:schema>>
;               :parameters {:path {:company java.lang.String,
;                                   :user-id Int}}},
;        :result nil,
;        :path-params {:company "metosin", :user-id "123"},
;        :path "/metosin/users/123"}

Coercion was not applied. Why? In Reitit, routing and coercion are separate processes and we have done just the routing part. We need to apply coercion after the successful routing.

But now we should have enough data on the match to apply the coercion.

Compiling coercers

Before the actual coercion, we ~~should~~ need to compile the coercers against the route data. Compiled coercers yield much better performance and the manual step of adding a coercion compiler makes things explicit and non-magical.

Compiling can be done via a Middleware, Interceptor or a Router. We apply it now at router-level, effecting all routes (with :parameters and :coercion defined).

There is a helper function reitit.coercion/compile-request-coercers just for this:

(require '[reitit.coercion :as coercion])
(require '[reitit.coercion.schema])
(require '[schema.core :as s])

(def router
  (r/router
    ["/:company/users/:user-id" {:name ::user-view
                                 :coercion reitit.coercion.schema/coercion
                                 :parameters {:path {:company s/Str
                                                     :user-id s/Int}}}]
    {:compile coercion/compile-request-coercers}))

Routing again:

(r/match-by-path r "/metosin/users/123")
; #Match{:template "/:company/users/:user-id",
;        :data {:name :user/user-view,
;               :coercion <<:schema>>
;               :parameters {:path {:company java.lang.String,
;                                   :user-id Int}}},
;        :result {:path #object[reitit.coercion$request_coercer$]},
;        :path-params {:company "metosin", :user-id "123"},
;        :path "/metosin/users/123"}

The compiler added a :result key into the match (done just once, at router creation time), which holds the compiled coercers. We are almost done.

Applying coercion

We can use a helper function reitit.coercion/coerce! to do the actual coercion, based on a Match:

(coercion/coerce!
  (r/match-by-path router "/metosin/users/123"))
; {:path {:company "metosin", :user-id 123}}

We get the coerced paremeters back. If a coercion fails, a typed (:reitit.coercion/request-coercion) ExceptionInfo is thrown, with data about the actual error:

(coercion/coerce!
  (r/match-by-path router "/metosin/users/ikitommi"))
; => ExceptionInfo Request coercion failed:
; #CoercionError{:schema {:company java.lang.String, :user-id Int, Any Any},
;                :errors {:user-id (not (integer? "ikitommi"))}}
; clojure.core/ex-info (core.clj:4739)

Full example

Here's an full example for doing routing and coercion with Reitit and Schema:

(require '[reitit.coercion.schema])
(require '[reitit.coercion :as coercion])
(require '[reitit.core :as r])
(require '[schema.core :as s])

(def router
  (r/router
    ["/:company/users/:user-id" {:name ::user-view
                                 :coercion reitit.coercion.schema/coercion
                                 :parameters {:path {:company s/Str
                                                     :user-id s/Int}}}]
    {:compile coercion/compile-request-coercers}))

(defn match-by-path-and-coerce! [path]
  (if-let [match (r/match-by-path router path)]
    (assoc match :parameters (coercion/coerce! match))))

(match-by-path-and-coerce! "/metosin/users/123")
; #Match{:template "/:company/users/:user-id",
;        :data {:name :user/user-view,
;               :coercion <<:schema>>
;               :parameters {:path {:company java.lang.String,
;                                   :user-id Int}}},
;        :result {:path #object[reitit.coercion$request_coercer$]},
;        :path-params {:company "metosin", :user-id "123"},
;        :parameters {:path {:company "metosin", :user-id 123}}
;        :path "/metosin/users/123"}

(match-by-path-and-coerce! "/metosin/users/ikitommi")
; => ExceptionInfo Request coercion failed...

Ring Coercion

For a full-blown http-coercion, see the ring coercion.

Edit on GitHub

cljdoc is a website building & hosting documentation for Clojure/Script libraries

× close